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Carnivorous Plants of the United States and Canada

Carnivorous Plants of the United States and Canada
Carnivorous Plants of the United States and Canada
by Donald E. Schnell
Timber Press, Inc., 2002
ISBN 0881925403

It was a pleasure to see that Dr. Schnell has updated his earlier volume of Carnivorous Plants first published by Blair Press in 1976. Both editions have been the only books devoted to the native carnivorous plants of the United States. The newer updated second edition of Carnivorous Plants of the United States and Canada is an expansion of the previous one, including general notes and a short discussion on cultivation. Schnell delves into what a “true” carnivorous plant is and in what type of habitat each species thrives. He describes the different methods of trapping and how each species attracts their prey. Each species requires low nutrient acidic soils and bright sunlight. Some species may also be dependent on fire. Many species live in or are associated with the acidic loving Sphagnum moss—much of which lives in savannas, bogs, and seepage areas. Schnell describes each of the forty-five species in detail and includes range maps and information on cultivation, pollination, and animal associates. Hybrids exist for some species where their ranges overlap.

Dr. Schnell stresses the need for conservation, not only for the plants themselves, but for the ecosystem in which they live. Many of the areas that once harbored many species has been greatly reduced by ditching and draining boggy areas, over-collecting, improper burning practices and complete destruction of the habitat. Many of the species are threatened or endangered in states where these once thrived.

The Wild Orchids of North America

The Wild Orchids of North American, North of Mexico
The Wild Orchids of North America,
North of Mexico

Paul Martin Brown
University Press of Florida, 2003
ISBN 0813025729

The Wild Orchids of North America, North of Mexico by Paul Martin Brown encompasses some 239 illustrated species and 49 subspecies of orchids that are found in North America north of Mexico. This flex-cover volume is a complement to Brown's Wild Orchids of Florida (Brown, 2002).

Although Brown does not include descriptions for each species, he does provide keys for all genera and species. Each species is listed alphabetically and references and citations are provided for the reader to learn more about each one.

The appendix includes a section on additions, corrections, nomenclature changes. He also comments on Luer’s 1972 and 1975 monumental works. A checklist with scientific and common names for all species and subspecies is also provided for those who want to keep track of what the reader may find in the field.

A reminder to those who like to hunt for orchids: Take pictures, but leave them in their natural soil—never ever collect any species and leave them for others to enjoy.

Wild Orchids of Florida

Wild Orchids of Florida
Wild Orchids of Florida
by Paul Martin Brown
University Press of Florida, 2006
ISBN 0813029333

Wild Orchids of Florida by Paul Martin Brown is the first real field guide of Florida's native orchids. This guide discusses the 118 species of orchids found in Florida, with 106 of these being native to the state. These 118 species represent over one half of the known species to be found in the United States and Canada.

A historical overview of Luer's monumental 1972 work, Native Orchids of Florida, is provided and includes corrections, name changes, and other synonyms. Range maps where vouchered specimens for each county are included. Keys to each genus and a checklist for native and naturalized species are also included.

Brown gives a taste of where to look for many species at least these two areas in north Florida, the coastal plain, and scrub habitats.

The descriptions through taxonomic keys helps to identify most genera down to a species. Photographs and drawings by Stan Folsum are included for each species.

My only complaint is that the illustrations should include major characteristics of troublesome species. Otherwise, this is one book that I would not leave at home when botanizing throughout the state of Florida and the flexicover should last for years.

Wildflowers of the Carolina Lowcountry and Lower Pee Dee

Wildflowers of the Carolina Lowcountry and Lower Pee Dee
Wildflowers of the Carolina Lowcountry
and Lower Pee Dee

by Richard D. Porcher
University of South Carolina Press, 1995
ISBN 1570030278

Wildflowers of the Carolina Lowcountry and Lower Pee Dee by Richard Porcher is a beautiful account of 437 native plant species represented by 466 photos of species and habitat that are found throughout the South Carolina Lowcountry and the Lower Pee Dee—almost one-third of the state's fifteen counties. Many of the represented plant species are threatened or endangered and are therefore protected by law.

Identifications are made not only by color or plant family, but also by locality where you might find each species, especially along roadsides. The author lists forty-eight sites throughout the state that harbor a high diversity of plant species. These sites include state parks, county parks, and along trails.

Each species is fully described and includes an accurate photograph that shows important taxonomic characters. The author comments about each species' natural history and how the plant may be used medicinally or as dye sources. There are sections devoted to carnivorous plants, orchids, rare, and poisonous plants.

A thorough bibliography and an illustrated glossary are also included.

The only two additions that I would add are an alphabetical arrangement of species and families and a ruler either on the front or back cover.

Wildflowers of Tennessee

Wildflowers of Tennessee
Wildflowers of Tennessee
by Jack B. Carman
Highland Rim Press, 2001
ISBN 0970841809

In his book Wildflowers of Tennessee, author Jack B. Carman describes over 1100 of the 2800 species of wildflowers from Tennessee as well as actually covering many more that are found in the surrounding states. He divides Tennessee into nine areas from the coastal plain to the Blue Ridge mountains.

Plants are arranged in phylogenetic order and the species within each genus are arranged alphabetically. Identifications are made easier by the outstanding photographs of 785 species that clearly show the plants' major characteristics. Each description is non-technical and includes the species name and derivation mostly from the Greek and Latin. Each book is supplied with its own plastic cover.

It is a pleasure to find such a book of southern wildflowers that can be utilized for identification even in states as far south as Florida.

Gardening with Carnivores: Sarracenia Pitcher Plants in Cultivation and in the Wild

Gardening with Carnivores: Sarracenia Pitcher Plants in Cultivat
Gardening with Carnivores: Sarracenia
Pitcher Plants in Cultivation & in the Wild

by Nick Romanowski
University Press of Florida, 2002
ISBN 0813025095
Paperback and Harcover

For those of you who are carnivorous plant lovers that want to grow Sarracenia pitchers—this is it. Few books have been written that covers it all on just the cultivation and raising carnivorous plants.

The author discusses in detail all of the eight to ten species, hybrids, and varieties. He provides technical data not only on cultivation requirements but also on habitat, soil type, seed propagation, pollination and pest problems. He also gives details on constructing bog gardens and the mixing of other plant species.

He provides range maps of native populations and informs us to buy only cultivated plants. All species and hybrids are now in cultivation somewhere and can be easily obtained rather than collecting from the wild.

In recent years white top pitcher plant “leaves” have been harvested from the wild as cut “flowers” to satisfy those florists who incorporate them in flower arrangements. Commercially growing this species can bring in big monetary returns. And thus preserving and protecting wild populations. Less than three percent of the native pitcherplant habitat remains.

A Guide to the Wildflowers of South Carolina

A Guide to the Wildflowers of South Carolina
A Guide to the Wildflowers of South Carolina
by Richard Dwight Porcher and
Douglas Alan Rayner
University of South Carolina Press, 2002
ISBN 1570034389

A Guide to the Wildflowers of South Carolina is a complement to the Wildflowers of the Carolina Lowcountry and Lower Pee Dee. (University of South Carolina Press, 1995). Both books together encompass 1150 photographs of South Carolina wildflowers.

The photographs of this volume represent 711 of the 3160 species of native and naturalized plants that are found in South Carolina.

Authors Richard Porcher and Douglas Rayner have used a habitat approach to identification rather than by color or species taxonomy. They divide the state into three provinces—the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont, and the Coastal Plain. Fifty-one sites are discussed where a variety of species and habitats can be found. What is really nice is that each species is thoroughly described and includes common name, scientific name, pronunciation, range, similar species, and a short comments section.

The history of field botany in South Carolina is traced back to Mark Catesby and covers notable “botanists” such as William Bartram, André Michaux and Wade Batson, all of whom have added much to the understanding of flora of the state.

Porcher and Rayner discuss the future need for more field botanists. In the past twenty years many academic institutions have abandoned training at the graduate level for M.S. or PhD. students in field botany.

It is hoped that books like this one will renew the interest in field botany by amateur students and academic institutions.

Grasshoppers of Florida

Grasshoppers of Florida
Grasshoppers of Florida
by John L Capinera, Clay Whitney Scherer,
and Jason Squitier
University Press of Florida, 2002
ISBN 0813024269

It is a pleasure to see a book finally coming out that deals with one of the more commonly seen group of insects in Florida–the grasshoppers. In the past, there was no way to identify those species that one would encounter hopping and jumping about without delving into more technical literature.

Authors John l. Capinera, Clay Whitney Scherer and Jason Squitier do not cover all the grasshopper species found in the state, but do describe seventy of the more common species of the family Acrididae. All species are thoroughly described for both males and females, and include accurate photographs and illustrations. Each species is compared with similar look-a-likes and range maps show the distribution throughout the state. Twenty-two species are found only in Florida or adjacent states and the remaining forty-eight are distributed in the Southeast and further north.

A checklist for all species is provided in this flexicover volume.

Anyone, amateur or scientist, who aspires to be an entomologist will enjoy the utility of the Grasshoppers of Florida.

Wildflowers of Georgia

Wildflowers of Georgia
Wildflowers of Georgia
by Hugh Nourse and Carol Nourse
University of Georgia Press, 2000
ISBN 0820321796

Having made my first trek to the mountains of Georgia in the springtime of 2000, I understood why the authors enjoyed the eight years that they photographed Georgia’s splendid wildflowers.

They divide the coverage of this large-format volume into four regions of the state from the coastal plain to the Blue Ridge mountains. Within each region, physiographic characteristics and floral diversity are emphasized. Photographs of 85 plants and habitats are intertwined with these discussions. The authors discuss parks, trails, and areas where one can enjoy numerous wildflower species during their blooming season.

This book is not a systematic treatment with taxonomic keys and illustrations. For those interested in such treatments, there is a reference book list at the end of the book. It is a wonderful guide to the true beauty conveyed by wildflowers. Each of us must do our part to inspire others to help protect the wildflowers of Georgia and elsewhere, especially those endangered by loss of habitat. I think the Nourses have succeeded in inspiring readers of this book to become more aware of Georgia’s natural heritage. Let us hope that each of us can strive to preserve this state’s disappearing wildlands.

Ferns of Florida

The Ferns of Florida
Ferns of Florida
by Gil Nelson
Pineapple Press, 2000,
ISBN 1561641979
Paperback and Hardcover

Gil Nelson has done it again with his newest guide. A non-technical book on the ferns of Florida was long overdue. It is a much appreciated complement to his other two books on the flora of Florida, The Trees of Florida and The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida.

Like his previous books, he treats the 160 plus species of ferns thoroughly with easy to understand descriptions, distributions, and habitats. One of the selling features of all of Nelson’s books is his inclusion of how a species differs from other similar species. Another feature not included in many books is a brief description of interesting plant lore.

Excellent photographs and illustrations greatly aid in the identification of the ferns. His alphabetical arrangement of the families and genera is much appreciated by those of us who don’t know the phylogenetic arrangement of the plant kingdom. A key to the ferns families is included in the introduction of the book. Additional keys to various genera are also included. The appendices include a checklist of Florida fern species and an excellent bibliography.

Three minor suggestions for improvement would be:

  • the inclusion of more illustrations, especially of the sori characteristic of each fern species;
  • easier readability of the illustration and photograph numbers within the text description;
  • and the inclusion of a ruler on each page for easy measurement of key characteristics. This was included in his earlier books, but was inadvertently omitted in the Ferns volume. Let us hope future editions will return the ruler to its rightful place!

All in all, if you are interested in learning the ferns of Florida, Nelson’s Ferns of Florida is an essential addition to your library.

Some of Gil Nelson’s other books:

  • The Trees of Florida, Pineapple Press, 1994
  • The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida, Pineapple Press, 1996